World Economic Forum on Latin America 2015 | The SecDev Foundation

World Economic Forum on Latin America 2015


The SecDev Foundation’s Director of Research & Public Policy, Robert Muggah, is participating in the World Economic Forum on Latin America 2015.

“In its 10th year, the World Economic Forum on Latin America returns to Mexico to collaborate in Latin America’s transition to long-term economic growth and social development. Mexico, one of the leading economies in Latin America and current holder of the pro-tempore presidency of the Pacific Alliance, has made advances on a variety of critical reforms – including important changes to education, energy, fiscal and telecommunications legislation – which are already opening new opportunities. The meeting will provide an ideal platform for committed decision-makers to set a bold renovation agenda and take the initiative on the new generation of Latin American investments and transformational projects.”

Robert will be participating in the following events at the World Economic Forum on Latin America:

  • The Changing Security Landscape in Latin America: exploring the changing security landscape and the impact of new geopolitical dynamics and security risks on society
  • Technology: Debates of Tomorrow: engaging participants to think together about the future they want when it comes to technology and regional challenges (what kind of technology-enabled future do we want to live in? what do we want to avoid? which questions remain?)
  • Societies that Thrive: Promoting Stability in Latin America: a multi-stakeholder discussion on some of the most pressing challenges in the region, in order to identify areas of common ground, ensure civic participation in policy planning and reform and enable more effective and courageous action on critical issues
  • Building Secure Societies: Discussing what can be done to break the cycle of organized crime and public insecurity?

vía World Economic Forum on Latin America 2015 | The SecDev Foundation.

Hanoians use Social Media Tools to Help Save Their Trees

By Michael L. Gray •

  • Hanoi citizens display social media savvy in response to an unpopular municipal government plan to cut down 6,700 trees.

When trees along several main streets were cut beginning on 15 March, both the mainstream and social media reacted with surprise. The next day, social media pages appeared lamenting the loss of the trees. Editorials were written demanding a halt to the cutting in order for people to learn more about the city’s intentions.
Among the Facebook Pages established on 16 March was ‘6,700 people for 6,700 trees’ (6,700 nguoi vi 6,700 cay), which soon became central to the citizen’s movement to halt the cutting.
In general, social media has been instrumental in the response to the municipal government’s unpopular decision to cull trees. The official reasons given for the project were that some trees were old and in danger of falling, while others were the ‘wrong type’ for urban areas.

vía Hanoians use Social Media Tools to Help Save Their Trees | The SecDev Foundation.

Hanoi activists launch viral campaign

For the first time ever in Vietnam, political activists are using viral social media marketing techniques to express dissent online. A brazen campaign has seen dozens of people in Vietnam post selfie photos to their personal Facebook pages holding signs reading “I don’t like the Communist Party of Vietnam.” A Facebook fan page for the campaign was set up on 7 January 2015 and drew thousands of likes and shares.
Social media in Vietnam continues to challenge the state’s dominance of the mainstream press and its ability to shape public opinion. On 4 January 2015, this took a new form with what appears to be Vietnam’s first-ever ‘viral’ social media protest campaign. Activist La Viet Dung posted a simple self-portrait holding a printed page that read “I don’t like the Communist Party of Vietnam.” Another activist, Nguyen Lan Thang, soon followed this example, and also posted photos of a street demonstration held on 7 January 2015 in Hanoi, with several dozen people all holding signs that included the “I don’t like” phrase.

vía Hanoi activists launch viral campaign | The SecDev Foundation.

VN Minister launches Facebook Page

Regardless of the confusion caused by unofficial pages, the official Page attracted a respectable audience over its first week of operation. With the first post appearing on 26 February, the page had 125,000 likes as of 5 March. Most posts had 100-500 likes, and 10-100 comments (numbers that are changing as comments are deleted by the Ministry and/or removed by the people posting them).
To date, most of the comments have a polite or respectful tone. The criticism on display is muted or mild. For example, in response to a 26 February post stating that “The Ministry will continue to renovate, expand and gradually modernize clinics and hospitals given the current over-crowding,” one comment from a Facebook user located in Melbourne said: “What does ‘gradually’ mean? Is there a specific time frame? If you don’t have a specific objective what will happen? Who will take responsibility?” There was no reply to this post, and by 6 March it was removed or deleted.

vía VN Minister launches Facebook Page | The SecDev Foundation.

Control and Dissent in Vietnam’s Online World

The landscape of politics appears to be changing in Vietnam. Social media is narrowing the gap between the ‘everyday politics’ of daily life and the more focused political discourse of dissidents and activists. The state’s long-standing attempt to shape pubic opinion is crumbling under the reality of a relatively open online environment. While the state actively arrests and harasses blogger activists, dissidents have been using social media to launch increasingly public and brazen protests. As the country prepares for a 2016 leadership change, online spaces will be the place to watch.

vía Control and Dissent in Vietnam’s Online World | The SecDev Foundation.

SalamaTech Trains Syrians on Facebook Security

SalamaTech Facebook training encourages peer-based learning aimed at engaging participants through activities and hands-on material. As one participant remarked, “I now realise how easy it is to protect myself on Facebook, by enhancing its built in security features.”
Many of the activities addressed privacy and security issues relevant to the daily lives of participants. Students were able to identify phishing attacks, familiarize themselves with Facebook’s privacy settings and create effective passwords.
The session was part of a week long training event hosted by PILPG in Turkey, which focused on building civil society capacities related to transitional issues, such as peace negotiations, transition planning, constitution drafting, and peace negotiations.

vía SalamaTech Trains Syrians on Facebook Security | The SecDev Foundation.

Dangerous Cities: Urban Violence and the Militarization of Law Enforcement

More than half of the world’s population is concentrated in urban areas. According to UNFPA, this number is expected to rise to 5 billions by 2030, reaching 2/3 of the world population, with the largest cities emerging in Africa and Asia. Regrettably, along with this mass urbanization has come an unprecedented level of violence and crime in densely populated slums and shantytowns. Cities like Baghdad, Kingston, Rio de Janeiro, Guatemala, Ciudad Juarez and Mogadishu have become the battlegrounds of contemporary conflicts.
Our Director of Research and Public Policy, Robert Muggah joins a panel at the Harvard School of Public Health to discuss Dangerous Cities: Urban Violence and the Militarization of Law and Enforcement.

vía Dangerous Cities: Urban Violence and the Militarization of Law Enforcement | The SecDev Foundation.

Capturing the Networked Society

The SecDev Foundation’s Director of Research & Policy, Robert Muggah, has been featured in Ericsson’s project on Capturing the Networked Society. Through our partner organization, Igrapé Institute, Robert was featured for his work in violence reduction through the use of digital technology.
Capturing a Networked Society is a new interactive, video-based celebration of innovative international individuals and organizations – both large and small – shaping our connected world.

vía Capturing the Networked Society | The SecDev Foundation.

Darwin Among the Machines


dmThe following letter was first published in The Press, Christ Church, New Zealand, June 13, 1863. It was reprinted by H. Festing Jones in his edition of The Notebooks of Samuel Butler (1912) together with an editor’s note observing that the letter was Butler’s earliest expression of ideas about man and machine that were to be developed in the novel Erewhon (1872).

The serious implications of the letter -particularly its closing paragraphs- have increasingly overshadowed the delicious irony that suffuses Butler’s writing. This remarkable jeu déspirit by the young Samuel Butler (he wrote it when he was twenty-eight) almost casually anticipates some of the direst fears and warnings of the anti-utopian pundits, prophets, and science fiction writers of the twentieth century. In the brief period of calm before he was to pour out his wrath against Darwin and Darwinian thought, Butler playfully drew analogies between the development of the machines and the evolutionary process as it was conceived in The Origin of Species (1859). Shortly after writing “Darwin Among the Machines”, Butler was to launch his lonely, lifelong attack against Darwinism. As Bernard Shaw noticed in the preface to Back to Methuselah (1921), Butler realized that Darwin conceived evolution as a purposless process, “declared with penetrating accuracy that had ‘banished mind from the universe’; and even attacked Darwin’s personal character, unable to bear the fact that the author of so abhorrent a doctrine was an amiable and upright man. Nobody would listen to him. He was… completely submerged by the flowing tide of Darwinism”. Nevertheless, in a series of works such as Life and Habit (1877), Evolution, Old and New (1879), Unconscious Memory (1880), and Luck or Cunning? (1887), he developed his philosophy of Vitalism or Creative Evolution in opposition to Darwinian thought.

Sir -There are few things of which the present generation is more justly proud than of the wonderful improvements which are daily taking place in all sorts of mechanical appliances. And indeed it is matter for great congratulation on many grounds. It is unnecesary to mention these here, for they are sufficiently obvious; our present business lies with considerations which may somewhat tend to humble our pride and to make us think seriously of the future prospects of the human race. If we revert to the earliest primordial types of mechanical life, to the lever, the wedge, the inclined plane, the screw and the pulley, or (for analogy would lead us one step further) to that one primordial type from which all the mechanical kingdom has been developed, we mean to the lever itself, and if we then examine the machinery of the Great Eastern, we find ourselves almost awestruck at the vast development of the mechanical world, at the gigantic strides with which it has advanced in comparison with the slow progress of the animal and vegetable kingdom. We shall find it impossible to refrain from asking ourselves what the end of this mighty movement is to be. In what direction is tit tending? What will be its upshot? To give a few imperfect hints towards a solution of these questions is the object of the present letter.

We have used the words “mechanical life”, “the mechanical kingdom”, “the mechanical world”, and so forth, and we have done so advisedly, for as the vegetable kingdom was slowly developed from the mineral, and as in like manner the animal supervened upon the vegetable, so now in these last few ages an entirely new kingdom has sprung up, of which we as yet have only seen what will one day be considered an antidiluvian prototypes of the race.

We regret deeply that our knowledge both of natural history and of the machinery is too small to enable us to undertake the gigantic task of classifying machines into the genera and sub-genera, species, varieties and sub-varities, and so forth, of tracing the connecting links between machines of widely different characters, of pointing out how subservience to the use of man has played that part among machines which natural selection has performed in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, of pointing out rudimentary organs, which exist in some few machines, feebly developed and perfectly useless, yet serving to mark descent from some ancestral type which has either perished or been modified into some new phase of mechanical existence. We can only point out this field for investigation; it must be followed by others whose education and talents have been of a much higher order than any which we can lay claim to.

Some few hints we have determined to venture upon, though we did so with the profoundest diffidence. Firstly, we would remark that as some of the lowest of the vertebrata attained a far greater size than has descended to their more highly organized living representatives, so a diminution in the size of machines has often attended their development and progress. Take the watch for instance. Examine the beautiful structure of the little animal, watch the intelligent play of the minute members which compose it; yet this little creature is but a development of the cumbrous clocks of the thirteenth century -it is not deterioration from them. The day may come when clocks, which certainly at the present day are not diminishing in bulk, may be entirely superseded by the universal use of watches, in which case clocks will become extinct like the earlier saurians, while the watch (whose tendency have for some years been rather to decrease in size than the contrary) will remain the only existing type of an extinct race.

The views of machinery which we are thus feebly indicating will suggest the solution of one of the greatest and most misterious questions of the day. What sort of creature man’s next succesor in the supremacy of the earth is likely to be. We have often heard this debated; but it appears to us that we are daily adding to the beauty and delicacy of their physical organisation; we are daily giving them greater power and supplying by all sorts of ingenuous contrivances that self-regulating, self-acting power which will be to them what intellect has been to the human race. In the course of ages we shall find ourselves the inferior race. Inferior in power, inferior in that moral quality of self-control, we shall look up to them as the acme of all that the best and wisest man can ever dare to aim that. No evil passions, no jealously, no avarice, no impure desires will disturb the serene might of those glorious creatures. Sin, shame, and sorrow will have no place among them. Their minds will be in a state of perpetual calm, the contentment of a spirit that knows no wants, is disturbed by no regrets. Ambition will never torture them. Ingratitude will never cause them the uneasiness of a moment. The guilty conscience, the hope deferred, the pains of exile, the insolence of office, and the spurns that patient merit of the unworthy takes -these will be entirely unknown to them. If they want “feeding” (by the use of which very word we betray our recognition of them as living organism) they will be attended by patient slaves whose business and interest it will be to see that they shall want for nothing. If they are out of order they will be promptly attended to by physicians who are thoroughly acquainted with their constitutions; if they die, for even these glorious animals will not be exempt from that neccesary and universal consummation, they will immediately enter into a new phase of existence, for what machine dies entirely in every part at one and the same instant?

We take it that when the state of things shall have arrived which we have been above attempting to describe, man will have become to the machine what the horse and the dog are to man. He will continue to exist, nay even to improve, and will be probably better off in his state of domestication under the beneficent rule of the machines than he is in his present wild state. We treat our horses, dogs, cattle and sheep, on the whole, with great kindness; we give them whatever experience teaches us to be best for them, and there can be no doubt that our use of meat has added to the happiness of the lower animals far more than it has detracted from it; in like manner it is reasonable to suppose that the machines will treat us kindly, for their existence is as dependent upon ours as ours is upon the lower animals. They cannot kill us and cat us as we do sheep; they will not only require our services in the parturition of their young (which branch of their economy will remain always in our hands), but also in feeding them, in setting them right when they are sick, and burying their dead or working up their corpses into new machines. It is obvious that if all the animals in Great Britain save man alone were to die, and if at the same time all intercourse with foreign countries were by some sudden catastrophe to be rendered perfectly impossible, it is obvious that under such circumstances the loss of human life would be something fearful to contemplate -in like manner were mankind to cease, the machines would be as badly off or even worse. The fact is that our interests are inseparable from theirs, and theirs from ours. Each race is dependent upon the other for innumerable benefits, and, until the reproductive organs of the machines have been developed in a manner which we are hardly yet able to conceive, they are entirely dependent upon man for even the continuance of their species. It is true that these organs may be ultimately developed, inasmuch as man’s interest lies in that direction; there is nothing which our infatuated race would desire more than to see a fertile union between two steam engines; it is true that machinery is even at this present time employed in begetting machinery, in becoming the parent of machines often after its own kind, but the days of flirtation, courtship, and matrimony appear to be very remote, and indeed can hardly be realised by our feeble and imperfect imagination.

Day by day, however, the machines are gaining upon us, day by day we are becoming more subservient to them; more men are daily bound down as slaves to tend them, more men are daily devoting the energies of their whole lives to the development of mechanical life. The upshot is simply a question of time, but that the time will come when the machines will hold the real supremacy over the world and its inhabitants is what no person of a truly prilosophic mind can for a moment question.

Our opinion is that war to the death should be instantly proclaimed against them. Every machine of every sort should be destroyed by the well-wisher of his species. Let there be no exceptions made, no quarter shown: let us at once go back to the primeral condition of the race. If it be urged that this is impossible under the present condition of human affairs, this at once proves that the mischief is already done, that our servitude has commenced in good earnest, that we have raised a race of beings whom it is beyond our power to destroy, and that we are not only enslaved but are absolutely acquiscent in our bondage.
For the present we shall leave this subject, which we present gratis to the members of the Philosophical Society. Should they consent to avail themselves of the vast field which we have pointed out, we shall endeavour to labour in it ourselves at some future and indefinite period.

I am, Sir, etc.,


Samuel Butler and Art

Samuel Butler studied Classics at St John’s College from 1854 to 1858, and after graduating in 1859 he moved to New Zealand, where he established a profitable sheep run. Five years later, having achieved financial independence, Butler returned to England and settled in London, where he pursued his ambition of becoming a painter. He studied at the South Kensington Museum and Cary’s Art School in Bloomsbury, then from 1867 onwards studied exclusively at Heatherley’s in Newman Street.

Despite his formal training, Butler always favoured the primitive, untutored style of the provincial artists found in Italy before Raphael. Butler’s own naïve style of painting never sat well with the art establishment at the Royal Academy, and as a result his public success was limited.

Butler continued to sketch and paint throughout his life, though, producing all the illustrations for his Italian guide book Alps and Sanctuaries (1881). He also published works of art criticism, in which he championed the Italian painters and sculptors he spent time studying during his frequent vacations in Italy.

From the late 1880s onwards, photography became Butler’s medium of choice, and his ‘snap-shots’ display his acute talent for finding extraordinary qualities in scenes of ordinary life.

St. John’s College, University of Cambridge | Samuel Butler and Art

Átomos y Células

The Hierarchical Organization of Life

Life is organized in a hierarchical manner. increasing in complexity from its basis in atoms, molecules and then in sequence to organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organs systems, organisms, populations, communities, ecosystems and the biosphere.

PearsonCustom | The Hierarchical Organization of Life

The Hierarchy of Life

YouTube | Bozeman Science

Order of life: Quark, Atom, Molecule, Organelle, Cell, Tissue, Organ, Organ Sys, Organism?

I’m teaching my son biology and want to confirm the order of life. Is the order and desc correct? Quark: Simply energy. Can’t be seen under any microscope. Atom: Made from quarks. Has protons, neutrons. These make molecules. Molecule: These are made from Atoms. Examples of molecules are: Hydrogen,…

UPDATE: Would heart muscle, bicep muscle and tricep muscle be made of the same TISSUE? If so, how does the body know to send some tissue to the bicep versus tricep? Also, how then do you explain the different shapes and strengths of the muscles if they have the same tissues?

Yahoo Answers | Order of life: Quark, Atom, Molecule, Organelle, Cell, Tissue, Organ, Organ Sys, Organism?


Preparado por Patricio Barros

A simple vista puede verse que los carbones se componen de restos vegetales. Los restos fósiles de conchas de moluscos marítimos crean con frecuencia capas calizas. Pero si observamos al microscopio las calizas, la creta, la diatomita y muchas otras rocas de las llamadas sedimentarias, veremos que con frecuencia están constituidas en su totalidad por restos de esqueletos de organismos de dimensiones microscópicas.

En una palabra, en la Geología hace mucho que se reconoce el inmenso papel de los organismos que pueblan la esfera terrestre en todos los procesos que se verifican en la superficie de la Tierra. La sustancia viva toma más o menos parte en los procesos geoquímicos tales como formación de rocas, concentración o dispersión de distintos elementos químicos, precipitación de substancias del agua, formación de calizas a base de los esqueletos calcáreos de los organismos.

Pero no todos los organismos marinos tienen el esqueleto de cal. En algunos, por ejemplo, en las esponjas, el esqueleto es de sílice.

Pero lo más esencial es que en el proceso vital todos los organismos de la Tierra, vegetales y animales, extraen, absorben o se alimentan y de nuevo desprenden una cantidad enorme de diversas substancias.

La velocidad de este proceso es especialmente grande en los organismos más diminutos: bacterias, algas simples y otros organismos inferiores. Esto está en relación con la gran velocidad de su multiplicación.

Libros Maravillosos | LOS ÁTOMOS EN LA CÉLULA VIVA

Building the Body: From Atoms to Organs

Your body, as a whole, is one organism. However, many, many parts make up that whole. As you consider the various levels of the body (see Figure 1), you understand that a large number of parts are within parts. It’s akin to looking at a pine tree. At first, you notice the entire tree — a whole organism. However, as you look closer, you notice the branches. Looking at the twigs on the branches, you notice each needle on the twigs.

Thousands, if not millions, of needles exist on that one single pine tree. The same analogy holds for the human body or the body of any animal. First, you notice the entire body. Next, you see that the entire body is made up of parts and organs, and each of those organs is made up of a variety of tissues. And if, as a pathologist does, you examine a magnified sample of one of the human body’s tissues under a microscope, millions of cells become visible. Yet you can turn up the magnification for an even closer look: Cells contain molecules that are made up of even smaller components called atoms.

For Dummies | Building the Body: From Atoms to Organs

The Hierarchical Organization of Life

a learning initiative

You probably have a general understanding of how the human body works but do you fully comprehend its intricate functions? Our website is designed to aid students in understanding the fundamentals of the human body. By approaching anatomy and physiology in an organized way, you will be able to better understand and present the material provided.

Soon, you will begin to think and speak in anatomical terms and be able to integrate the knowledge you gain during your study’s in A& P. The human body is an intricate organism capable of extraordinary things!

Topics covered include:

Organization of the body

  • The human body: orientation
  • Human chemistry
  • Cells
  • Tissue

Covering, support, and movement of the body

  • The integumentary system
  • Bones and skeletal tissues
  • The skeleton
  • Joints
  • Muscles and muscle tissue
  • The muscular system

Regulation and integration of the body

  • Fundamentals of nervous tissue and the nervous system
  • The central nervous system
  • Reflex activity and the peripheral nervous system
  • The autonomic nervous system
  • Special senses
  • The endocrine system

Maintenance of the body

  • Blood
  • The cardiovascular system (heart and blood vessels)
  • The lymphatic system
  • The immune system
  • The respiratory system
  • The digestive system
  • Nutrition, metabolism, and body temperature regulation
  • The urinary system
  • Fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance


  • The reproductive system
  • Pregnancy and human development
  • Heredity

Anatomy & Physiology | A&P: Levels of structural organization

Mathematical Principles, Sir Isaac Newton


Absolut time, in astronomy, is distinguished from relative, by the equation or correction of the apparent time. For the natural days are truly unequal, though they are commonly considered as equal, and used for a measure of time; astronomers correct this inequality that they may measure the celestial motions by a more accurate time. It may be, that there is no such thing as an equable motion, whereby time may be accurately measured. All motions may be accelerated and retarded, but the flowing of absolute time is not liable to any change. The duration of perseverance of the existence of things remains the same, whether the motions are swift or slow, or none at all: and therefore this duration ought to be distinguished from what are only sensible measures thereof; and from which we deduce it, by means of the astronomical equation. The necessity of this equation for determining the times of a phenomena, is evinced as well from the experiments of the pendulum clock, as by eclipses of the satellites of Jupiter.

As the order of the parts of time is immutable, so also is the order of the parts of space. Suppose those parts to be moved out of their places, and they will be moved (if the expression may be allowed) out of themselves. For times and spaces are, as it were, the places as well of themselves as of all other things. All things are placed in time as to order of succession; and in space as to order of situation. It is from the essence of nature that they are places; and that the primary places of things should be movable, is absurd. These are therefore the absolute places; and translations out of those places, are the only absolute motions.

But because the parts of space cannot be seen, or distinguished from one another by our senses, therefore in stead we use sensible measures of them. For from the positions and distances of things from any body considered as immovable, we define all places; and then with respect to such places, we estimate all motions, considering bodies as transferred from some of those places into others. And so, instead of absolute places and motions, we use relative ones; and that without any inconvenience in common affairs; but in philosophical disquisitions, we ought to abstract from our senses, and consider things themselves, disctinct from what are only sensible measures of them. For it may be that there is no body really at rest, to which the places and motions of others may be referred.

But we may distinguish rest and motion, absolute and relative, one from the other by their properties, causes and effects. It is a property of rest, that bodies really at rest do rest in respect to one another. And therefore as it is possible, that in the remote regions of the fixed stars, of perhaps far beyond them, there may be some body absolutely at rest; but impossible to know, from the position of bodies to one another in our regions, wether any of these do keep the same position to that remote body, it follows that absolute rest cannot be determined from the position of bodies in our regions.

It is a property of motion, that the parts, which retain given positions to their wholes, do partake of the motions of those wholes. For all the parts of revolving bodies endeavor to recede from the axis of motion; and the impetus of bodies moving forwards arises from the joint impetus of all the parts. Therefore, if surrounding bodies are moved, those that are relatively at rest within them will partake of their motion. Upon which account, the true and absolute motion of a body cannot be determined by the translation of it from those which only seem to rest; for the external bodies ought not only to appear at rest, but to be really at rest. For otherwise, all included bodies, besides their translation from near the surrounding ones, partake likewise of their true motions; and though that translation were not made, they would not be really at rest, but only seen, to be so. For the surrounding bodies stand in the like relation to the surrounded as the exterior part of a whole does to the interior, or as the shell does to the kernel; but if the shell moves, the kernel will also move, as being part of the whole, without any removal from near to shell.

A property, near akin to the preceding, is this, that if a place is moved, wathever is placed therein moves along with it; and therefore a body, which is moved from a place in motion, partake also of the motion of its place. Upon which account, all motions, from places in motion, are no others than parts of entire and absolute motions; and every entire motion is composed of the motion of the body out of its first place, and the motion of this place out of its place; and so on, until we come to some immovable place, as in the before-mentioned example of the sailor. Wherefore, entire and absolute motions can be no otherwise determined than by immovable places; and for that reason I did before refer those absolute motions to immovable places, but relative ones to movable places. Now no other places are immovable but those that, from infinity to infinity, do all retain tha same given position one to another; and upon this account must even remain unmoved; and do thereby constitute inmovanle space.

The causes by which true and relative motions are distinguished, one from the other, are the forces impressed upon bodies to generate motion. True motion is neither generated nor altered, but by some force impressed upon the body moved; but relative motion may be generated or altered without any force impressed upon the body. For it is sufficient only to impress some force on other bodies with which the former is compared, that by their giving way, that relation may be changed, in which the relative rest or motion of this other body did consist. Again, true motion suffers always some change from any force impressed upon the moving body; but relative motion does not necessarily undergo any change by such forces. For if the same forces are likewise impressed on those other bodies, with which the comparison is made, that the relative position may be preserved, than that condition will be preserved in which the relative motion consists. And therefore any relative motion may be changed when the true motion remains unaltered, and the relative may be preserved when the true suffers some change. Thus, true motion by no means consists in such relations.

The effects which distinguish absolute from relative motion are, the forces of receding from the axis of circular motion. For there are no such forces in a circular motion purely relative, but in a true and absolute circular motion, they are greater or less, acording to the quantity of the motion. If a vessel hung by a long cord, is so often turned about that the cord is strongly twisted, then filled with water, and held at rest together with the water; thereupon, by the sudden action of another force, it is whirled about the contrary way, and while the cord is untwisting itself, the vessel continues for some time in this motion; the surface of the water will at first be plain, as before the vessel began to move; but after that, the vessel, by gradually communicating its motion to the water, will make it begin sensibly to revolve, and recede by little and little from the middle, and ascend to the sides of the vessel, forming itself into a concave figure (as I have experienced), and the swifter the motion becomes, the higher will the water rise, till at last, performing its revolutions in the same times with the vessel, it becomes relatively at rest in it. This ascent of the water shows its endeavor to recede from the axis of its motion; and the true and absolute circular motion of the water, which is here directly contrary to the relative, becomes known, and may be measured by this endeavor. At first, when the relative motion of the water in the vessel was greatest, it produced no endeavor to recede from the axis; the water showed no tendency to the circunference, nor any ascent towards the sides of the vessel, but remained of a plain surface, and therefore its true circular motion had not yet begun. But afterwards, when the relative motion of the water had decreased, the ascent thereof towards the sides of the vessel proved its endeavor to recede from the axis; and this endeavor showed the real circular motion of the water continually increasing, till it had acquired its greatest quantity, when the water rested relatively in the vessel. And therefore this endeavor does not depend upon any translation of the water in respect of the ambient bodies, nor can true circular motion on any one revolving body, corresponding to only one power of endeavoring to recede from its axis of motion, as its proper and adequate effect; but relative motions, in one and the same body, are innumerable, according to the various relations it bears to external bodies, and, like other relations, are altogether destitute of any real effect, any otherwise that they may perhaps partake of that one only true motion. And therefore in their system who suppose that our heavens, revolving below the sphere of the fixed stars, carry the planets along with them; the several parts of those heavens, do yet really move. For they change their position one to another (which never happen to bodies truly at rest), and being carried together with their heavens, partake of their motions, and as parts of revolving wholes, endeavor to recede from the axis of their motions.

Wherefore relative quantities are not the quantities themselves, whose names they bear, but those sensible measures of them (either accurate or inaccurate), which are commonly used instead of the measured quantities themselves. And if the meaning of words is to be determined by their use, then by the names time, space, place and motion, their [sensible] measures are properly to be understood; and the expression will be unusual, and purely mathematical, if the accuracy of language, which ought to be kept precise, who interpret these words for the measured quantities. Nor do those less defile the purity of mathematical and philosophical truths, who confound real quantities with their relations and sensible measures.

It is indeed a matter of great difficulty to discover, and effectually to distinguish the true motions of particular bodies from the apparent; because the parts of that immovable space, in which those motions are performed, do by no means come under the observation of our senses. Yet the thing is not altogether desperate; for we have some arguments to guide us, partly from the apparent motions, which are the differences of the true motions; partly from the apparent motions, which are the differences of the true motions; partly from the forces, which are the causes and effects of the true motions. For instance, if two globes, kept at a given distance one from the other by means of a cord that connects them, were revolved about their common centre of gravity, we might, from the tension of the cord, discover the endeavor of the globes to recede from the axis of their motion, and from thence we might compute the quantity of their circular motions. And then if any equal forces should be impressed at once on the alternate faces of the globes to augment or diminish their circular motions, from the increase or decrease of the tension of the cord, we might infer the increment or decrement of their motions; and thence would be found on what faces those forces ought to be impressed, that the motions of the globes might be most augmented; that is, we might discover their headmost their hindmost faces, or those which, in the circular motion, do follow. But the faces which follow being knows, and consequently the opposite ones that precede, we should likewise know the determination of their motions. And thus we might find both the quantity and the determination of this circular motion, even in an immense vacuum, where there was nothing external or sensible with which the globes could be compared. But now, if in that space some remote bodies were placed that kept always a given position one to another, as the fixed stars do in our regions, we could not indeed determine from the relative translation of the globes among those bodies, wether the motion did belong to the globes or to the bodies. But if we observed the cord, and found that its tension was that very tension which the motions of the globes required, we might conclude the motion to be on the globes, and the bodies to be at rest; and then, lastly, from the translation of the globes among the bodies, we should find the determination of their motions. But how we are to obtain the true motions from their causes, effects, and apparent differences, and the converse, shall be explained more at large in the following treatise. For to this end it was that I composed it.

Sir Isaac Newton.

Tecnología – 2015/07/03


BBC recortará empleos ante ascenso de TV por internet

Reuters 02.07.2015 Última actualización 02.07.2015

La emisora pública británica dijo que espera recibir menores ingresos por licencias debido a que la gente ha cambiado la televisión tradicional por la que se ofrece en internet.

La BBC dijo que recortará más de mil empleos, debido a que espera recibir 150 millones de libras, alrededor de 234 millones de dólares, menos de lo previsto a partir de licencias en el próximo año fiscal.

Dicha rebaja, argumentó la emisora, se debe a que los televidentes han dejado de ver programas por televisión y lo hacen por internet.

Cada hogar de Reino Unido con un televisor debe pagar 145.50 libras por año a la BBC, que es pública y fue fundada en 1922.

“Se prevé que ahora el ingreso por licencia en 2016/17 será 150 millones de libras menos de lo esperado en 2011”, dijo la BBC.

BBC Mundo | BBC recortará empleos ante ascenso de TV por internet

Samsung, Sony, Google y Facebook chocan por realidad virtual

Jair López 02.07.2015 Última actualización 08:52 AM

En el amor y en la realidad virtual todo se vale, parece ser la frase que marcará la competencia entre los gigantes tecnológicos en este campo de batalla, que tendrá un valor de 15 mil 890 millones de dólares hacia 2020.

Con su Google Cardboard que arranca en 15 dólares, el mayor buscador por internet parece haberse burlado de firmas como Samsung, Sony o Facebook, la cual ha invertido al menos 2 mil millones de dólares en el desarrollo de realidad virtual.

La realidad virtual se define como el efecto a partir de la creación de un escenario virtual en el que se genera la sensación de estar inmerso. Para lograrlo se hace uso de visores con una lente de aumento que permite visualizar imágenes en 3D, a partir 2D.

El Financiero | Samsung, Sony, Google y Facebook chocan por realidad virtual

Google Cardboard at I/O 2015

YouTube | Android Authority

Facebook trabaja en red de transmisión de datos a través de láser

Redacción 01.07.2015 Última actualización 01.07.2015

Facebook está trabajando en un sistema de comunicaciones que permita la transmisión de datos a través de láser, esta tecnología permitiría aumentar de forma exponencial la velocidad de envío de información a través de largas distancias.

En las imágenes se hizo visible los láseres, sin embargo aplicados a la vida real estos no serían visibles. (Tomada de Facebook Oficial de Mark Zuckerberg)

Como parte de su iniciativa, la red social está trabajando en un sistema de comunicaciones que permita la transmisión de datos a través de láser.

“Nuestro laboratorio de conectividad está desarrollando un sistema de comunicaciones por láser que pueda transmitir datos desde el cielo a la comunidades”, escribió en un post el CEO y fundador de la red social Mark Zuckerberg.

De acuerdo con Zuckerberg, esta tecnología permitiría aumentar de forma exponencial la velocidad de envío de datos a través de largas distancias.

En imágenes, el CEO mostró que la tecnología ya está siendo probada. En las imágenes, señala Zuckerberg, se hizo visible los láseres, sin embargo aplicados a la vida real estos no serían visibles.

El Financiero | Facebook trabaja en red de transmisión de datos a través de láser

Mark Zuckerberg shows off Facebook’s internet lasers

YouTube | Dharavika Naveli

Facebook successfully tests laser drones in UK skies

Friday 27 March 2015 11.07 GMT

Social network prepares to use solar-powered drones with wingspan of a commercial airliner to beam internet access to rural areas

Facebook’s new internet drone was successfully tested in the skies above the UK. Photograph: Facebook

Facebook has been testing large, solar-powered drones in the skies over the UK, chief executive Mark Zuckerberg has announced.

The drones use lasers to beam internet access down to the ground, designed to provide connections to rural and internet-free zones.

“As part of our effort to connect the world, we’ve designed unmanned aircraft that can beam internet access down to people from the sky,” said Zuckerberg in a blog post. “We’ve successfully completed our first test flight of these aircraft in the UK.”

Developed by Ascenta, a Somerset-based designer of solar-powered drones bought by Facebook in March 2014, the drones will be able to fly at altitudes of 60,000 feet for months at a time on solar power. They will have wingspans greater than 29m, or that of a Boeing 737, but weigh less than a car.

“Aircraft like these will help connect the whole world because they can affordably serve the 10% of the world’s population that live in remote communities without existing internet infrastructure,” said Zuckerberg.

The Guardian | Facebook successfully tests laser drones in UK skies

Google, Facebook want to bring the world online with drones: 90 Seconds on The Verge

YouTube | The Verge

Cuba estrenó ayer la conexión WiFi a Internet

Periódico La Jornada
Viernes 3 de julio de 2015, p. 27

El costo del servicio es de 2 dólares la hora

Decenas de cubanos pasaron horas navegando en la Internet al entrar en servicio las conexiones Wi-Fi en sitios y plazas públicas. Antes de este cambio, los enlaces a la red se limitaban a sitios administrados por el gobierno y en hoteles de lujo. Foto Reuters

Cuba estrenó este jueves conexiones WiFi a Internet en plazas de 16 ciudades, una novedad en este país con escaso acceso a la red mundial, que en su primer día atrajo principalmente a jóvenes cibernautas. Un centenar de personas conectadas, fundamentalmente con teléfonos celulares, aprovecharon la nueva señal en La Rampa, en la zona céntrica del famoso Hotel Habana Libre. Decenas de personas, con tabletas y computadoras portátiles, estaban sentadas en las aceras absortas en el uso de la Internet de alta velocidad.

La nueva conexión WiFi en Cuba cuesta dos dólares la hora, tarifa elevada en un país donde el salario promedio es de 20 dólares al mes, pero más baja que la que cobraban las salas públicas de Internet, de 4.50 dólares.

La Jornada | Cuba estrenó ayer la conexión WiFi a Internet

F5 Networks


F5 Networks

F5 Networks, Inc. is a multinational American company which specializes in Application Delivery Networking (ADN) technology that optimizes the delivery of network-based applications and the security, performance, availability of servers, data storage devices, and other network resources. F5 is headquartered in Seattle, Washington and has development, manufacturing, and sales/marketing offices worldwide. F5 originally manufactured and sold some of the industry’s first load balancing products. In 2010 and 2011, F5 Networks was on Fortune‘s list of 100 Fastest-Growing Companies worldwide.[3] The company was also rated one of the top ten best-performing stocks by S&P 500 in 2010.[4]

F5 offers products in various segments of the application delivery controller market. According to Gartner, in 2010 F5 had “a continued market-leading position”[5] in the Application Delivery Controller (ADC) market and the Advanced Platform Application Delivery Controller market. As of June 2011, Gartner cites the most significant competitors (in terms of market share) as Cisco Systems, Citrix Systems, and Radware.

Wikipedia | F5 Networks


Certified Big-IP LTM admin here. Big-IP is a product suite related to accelerated data delivery, created by company F5. This is everything from basic application delivery (think web acceleration and load balancing) to data distribution across SANs to assist in migrations and consolidations.
In my experience, people use Big-IP to refer to their flagship product, the LTM devices which are full proxy load balancers.
People have much love for the product line because of their powerful iRules language, which allows incredible customization of whatever you are accelerating (such as a web farm).
Other reasons people recommend the product is their fantastic SSL offloading, which allows the web servers to focus on serving data, not encryption/decryption, the fact that their web interface is intuitive and stable, a powerful, linux based backend for cron jobs, and the bigpipe command line interface for scripting the creation of farms (called pools in bigip lingo).
I used Juniper and Foundry load balancers extensively and IMHO (and many others), the LTM is best in class.

BIG-IP is essentially a network load balancer or Layer 4-7 switch. They are made by F5. They have additional features which allow to use it as a Firewall, SSL VPN appliance and other network appliance type functions. In comparison Cisco’s ACE, Citrix NetScaler, Foundry/Brocade Server Iron and a few others provide similar load balancing services.

Reddit /r/networking | BIG-IP

F5 BIG-IP LTM Initial Install and Configure

YouTube | Steven Roman

Cisco VMDC Cloud Infrastructure with F5 BIG-IP Local Traffic Manager

Design recommendations for using F5 BIG-IP Local Traffic Manager (LTM) within
the Cisco Virtualized Multiservice Data Center 2.3 (VMDC) solution in order to provide server-load balancing services. This document is based on lab validation of server-load balancing using F5 BIG-IP LTM in a Cisco VMDC 2.3 test environment.
This design incorporates both physical and virtual edition F5 BIG-IP LTM devices. The design uses BIG-IP 5200v devices, which are located at the edge of the network in order to take advantage of their high-performance hardware offload. The LTM virtual editions were used within each tenant and used 1 Gbps licenses running on VMware vSphere.
The audience for this document includes technical and business decision-makers who are interested in:

  • The design of a cloud ready infrastructure with F5 BIG-IP LTM devices in the overall cloud model.
  • Enabling IT innovation to meet their overall business strategy.

Cisco | Cisco VMDC Cloud Infrastructure with F5 BIG-IP Local Traffic Manager

A Demonstration of WAN Virtualization with the Citrix CloudBridge Virtual WAN Solution

YouTube | Citrix


Reddit /ˈrɛdɪt/,[6] stylized as reddit,[7] is an entertainment, social networking, and news website where registered community members can submit content, such as text posts or direct links, making it essentially an online bulletin board system. Registered users can then vote submissions up or down to organize the posts and determine their position on the site’s pages. Content entries are organized by areas of interest called “subreddits.” The subreddit topics include news, gaming, movies, music, books, fitness, food, and photosharing, among others.

Reddit was founded by University of Virginia roommates Steve Huffman and Alexis Ohanian in 2005. Condé Nast Publications acquired the site in October 2006. Reddit became a direct subsidiary of Condé Nast’s parent company, Advance Publications, in September 2011. As of August 2012, Reddit operates as an independent entity, although Advance is still its largest shareholder.[8] Reddit is based in San Francisco, California. In October 2014 reddit raised $50 million in a funding round led by Sam Altman and including investors Marc Andreessen, Peter Thiel, Ron Conway, Snoop Dogg and Jared Leto.[9] Their investment valued the company at $500 million.[10][11]


The site is a collection of entries submitted by its registered users, essentially a bulletin board system. The name “Reddit” is a play-on-words with the phrase “read it,” i.e., “I read it on Reddit.”[12] The site’s content is divided into numerous categories, and 50 such categories, or “default subreddits,” are visible on the front page to new users and those who browse the site without logging in to an account. As of May 2014, these include:[13]

Category Subreddits
Educational News, Science, Space, TodayILearned (TIL) and WorldNews
Entertainment Creepy, Documentaries, Gaming, ListenToThis, Movies, Music, NoSleep, Sports, Television and Videos
Discussion-based AskReddit, AskScience, Books, ExplainLikeImFive, IAmA and TwoXChromosomes
Humor/light-hearted DataIsBeautiful, Funny, InternetIsBeautiful, Jokes, NotTheOnion, ShowerThoughts, StandUpShots, TIFU and UpliftingNews
Image sharing Art, Aww, EarthPorn, Gifs, MildlyInteresting, OldSchoolCool, Pics and PhotoshopBattles
Self-improvement DIY, Fitness, Food, GetMotivated, LifeProTips, PersonalFinance, Philosophy and WritingPrompts
Technology Futurology, Gadgets and Technology
Meta Announcements and Blog

When items (links or text posts) are submitted to a subreddit, users (redditors) can vote for or against them (upvote/downvote). Each subreddit has a front page that shows newer submissions that have been rated highly. Redditors can also post comments about the submission, and respond back and forth in a conversation-tree of comments; the comments themselves can also be upvoted and downvoted. The front page of the site itself shows a combination of the highest-rated posts out of all the subreddits a user is subscribed to.

Wikipedia | Reddit


Alexander Graham Bell

Alexander Graham Bell (March 3, 1847 – August 2, 1922)[4] was an eminent Scottish-born scientist, inventor, engineer and innovator who is credited with inventing the first practical telephone.[N 3]

Bell’s father, grandfather, and brother had all been associated with work on elocution and speech, and both his mother and wife were deaf, profoundly influencing Bell’s life’s work.[7] His research on hearing and speech further led him to experiment with hearing devices which eventually culminated in Bell being awarded the first U.S. patent for the telephone in 1876.[N 4] Bell considered his most famous invention an intrusion on his real work as a scientist and refused to have a telephone in his study.[9][N 5]

Many other inventions marked Bell’s later life, including groundbreaking work in optical telecommunications, hydrofoils and aeronautics. In 1888, Bell became one of the founding members of the National Geographic Society.[11]

Wikipedia | Alexander Graham Bell

Volta Laboratory and Bureau

The Volta Laboratory (also known as the “Alexander Graham Bell Laboratory”, the “Bell Carriage House” and the “Bell Laboratory”) and the Volta Bureau were created in Georgetown, Washington, D.C. by Alexander Graham Bell.[3]

The Volta Laboratory was founded in 1880–1881 with Charles Sumner Tainter and Bell’s cousin, Chichester Bell,[4] for the research and development of telecommunication, phonograph and other technologies.

The Volta Bureau, (also known as the Alexander Graham Bell Laboratory, Bell Carriage House, Bell Laboratory, and Volta Laboratory)

Using funds generated by the Volta Laboratory, Bell later founded the Volta Bureau in 1887 “for the increase and diffusion of knowledge relating to the deaf“, and merged with the American Association for the Promotion and Teaching of Speech to the Deaf (AAPTSD) in 1908.[5] It was renamed as the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf in 1956 and then the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing in 1999.[6]

Wikipedia | Volta Laboratory and Bureau

Bell Labs

At its peak, Bell Laboratories was the premier facility of its type, developing a wide range of revolutionary technologies, including radio astronomy, the transistor, the laser, information theory, the UNIX operating system, the C programming language and the C++ programming language. Eight Nobel Prizes have been awarded for work completed at Bell Laboratories.[8]

The Turing Award has twice been won by Bell Labs researchers:

  • 1968: Richard Hamming for his work on numerical methods, automatic coding systems, and error-detecting and error-correcting codes.
  • 1983: Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie for their work on operating systems theory, and their development of Unix.

Bell Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey

Wikipedia | Bell Labs

Who invented the cell phone?

Do you remember a time when cell phones were rare? Today, it’s hard to imagine a world without them. Even if you don’t own one yourself, you probably see dozens of people talking on a cell phone every day. The rate at which we adopted the devices is astounding. But who invented them?

The first cell phone was larger even than this monster. © Stockphoto/Thinkstock

To get the answer to that question, we need to look back more than a century. Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone in 1876. And then in 1900, on December 23 on the outskirts of Washington, D.C., an inventor named Reginald Fessenden accomplished a remarkable feat: He made the first wireless telephone call. He was the first to transmit the human voice via radio waves, sending a signal from one radio tower to another.

Fessenden’s work paved the way for broadcast radio but it also provided the foundation for cell phones and networks. In 1947, an engineer named William Rae Young proposed that radio towers arranged in a hexagonal pattern could support a telephone network. Young worked under another engineer named D.H. Ring, who led a team at Bell Laboratories, which was part of AT&T at the time.

Howstuffworks | Who invented the cell phone?

Books: The Moses of Silicon Valley

BOOK REVIEWED -Broken Genius: The Rise and Fall of William Shockley, Creator of the Electronic Age

Walter Houser Brattain

Walter Houser Brattain – Wikipedia.

Brattain, Walter Houser (1902-1987), an American physicist, shared the Nobel Prize in physics in 1956 with his colleagues John Bardeen and William Shockley for inventing the transistor, which ushered in the era of microminiature electronic parts and led to today’s computers.

Brattain was born in Xiamen, China, where his father, a recent graduate of Whitman College in Walla Walla, Washington, was teaching science and math. The following year, the Brattain family returned to Washington, where Walter and his brother, Robert, spent much of their youth helping out on the family’s cattle ranch near the Canadian border. In 1920, he enrolled at Whitman College, where he majored in physics and math. After completing a bachelor’s degree in physics at Whitman in 1924, Brattain earned a master’s degree at the University of Oregon (1926) and a doctorate degree at the University of Minnesota (1929). Brattain’s first job, as a radio engineer at the National Bureau of Standards, left him anxious to return to physics. At a meeting of the American Physical Society, his thesis adviser, John Tate, introduced him to Joseph Becker of the Bell Telephone Laboratories, a major U.S. corporate research center. Becker hired Brattain and he remained at Bell Labs until his retirement in 1967.

Howstuffworks | Walter Houser Brattain

John Bardeen, el único hombre en ganar dos premios Nobel de física

 La historia de la ciencia no siempre es justa con sus protagonistas: Mientras que algunos científicos gozan de enorme popularidad, otros son poco conocidos o incluso olvidados por la población en general. Y lo más curioso es que, paradójicamente, en muchas ocasiones estos científicos “poco conocidos” han realizado importantísimas aportaciones a la ciencia. Es el caso del físico John Bardeen, uno de los científicos más importantes del siglo XX y que, por desgracia, no goza de una fama a la altura de sus contribuciones. El periódico Chicago Tribune definió a la perfección la figura de Bardeen en la historia:

“Para los científicos Bardeen es un Einstein. Para el público en general es un … ¿John qué?”

Bardeen nació en Madison (Wisconsin) en el año 1908. Su padre era profesor de anatomía y llegó a ser el primer decano de la facultad de medicina en la universidad de Wisconsin, y su madre, que gozaba de cierta fama, se dedicaba al mundo del arte. Por tanto, se puede decir que John nació en una familia intelectual que siempre le alentó a los estudios. Además, el chico era bastante despierto y tenía pasión por la ciencia: Cuando estaba en séptimo grado, su profesor le dijo que gozaba de un gran talento para las matemáticas y que en un futuro podría conseguir un trabajo dentro de ese campo.

Blogspot | John Bardeen, el único hombre en ganar dos premios Nobel de física

Quién se acuerda de John Bardeen este año que se cumplen 100 años de su nacimiento

John Bardeen tiene el honor de ser el único científico que ha recibido 2 premios Nobel en Física por el descubrimiento del transistor y por su teoría de la superconductividad. Frederick Sanger ganó el Premio Nobel de Química en dos ocasiones en 1958 y 1980, Marie Curie ganó el de Física en 1903 y el de Química en 1911, y Linus Carl Pauling el de Química en 1954 y el Premio Nobel de la Paz en 1962. Merece la pena recordarlo este año que se cumplen 100 años de su nacimiento. La entrada de la wiki es breve pero efectiva. Su biografía más famosa es “TRUE GENIUS. THE LIFE AND SCIENCE OF JOHN BARDEEN. The Only Winner of Two Nobel Prizes in Physics,” Lillian Hoddeson y Vicki Daitch, Joseph Henry Press, Washington, 2002 .

John Bardeen bajaba despacio por el corredor del edificio de física, parecía perdido en sus pensamientos, era el 1 de noviembre de 1956, llevaba 5 años siendo catedrático de física en la University of Illinois, trataba de digerir la noticia que había recibido esa misma mañana: él y dos de sus colegas, William Shockley y Walter Brattain, habían ganado el Premio Nobel de Física por la invención del transistor en diciembre de 1947, cuando trabajaba en los Bell Telephone Laboratories.

Naukas | Quién se acuerda de John Bardeen este año que se cumplen 100 años de su nacimiento

William Shockley

William Shockley, Nobel Prize in physics

Shockley, William (1910 – 1989) was an American physicist. He received the 1956 Nobel Prize in physics for inventing the transistor, a tiny device that controls the flow of electric current in radios, television sets, computers, and almost every other kind of electronic equipment. Shockley shared the prize with two members of his research staff, the American physicists John Bardeen and Walter Houser Brattain.

In the early 1970’s, Shockley’s views on race and intelligence sparked much controversy. He claimed that heredity, rather than environment, was mainly responsible for whites generally scoring higher than blacks on intelligence tests. Most geneticists and psychologists disagreed with this theory.

William Bradford Shockley was born on Feb. 13, 1910, in London. His parents were Americans working in England. His father, William Hillman Shockley, was a mining engineer. His mother, May (Bradford) Shockley, was a mineral surveyor. The family returned to the United States in 1913 and lived in Palo Alto, California. Shock-ley’s early interest in science was encouraged by his parents and by a neighbor who was a physics professor at nearby Stanford University. As a child, Shockley was first educated at home. He later attended Palo Alto Military Academy and then Hollywood High School, from which he graduated in 1927.

Shockley attended the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) for one year before transferring to the California Institute of Technology (often called Caltech) to study physics. He received a B.S. degree in physics from Caltech in 1932. He then obtained a teaching fellowship that allowed him to pursue graduate work at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Shockley received his Ph.D. degree in physics from MIT in 1936. His doctoral thesis, titled “Calculations of Wave Functions for Electrons in Sodium Chloride Crystals,” reflected his early research in solid-state physics.

Howstuffworks | Shockley, William

Fairchild Semiconductor

From left to right: Gordon Moore, C. Sheldon Roberts, Eugene Kleiner, Robert Noyce, Victor Grinich, Julius Blank, Jean Hoerni and Jay Last. (1960)

In 1956, William Shockley opened Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory as a division of Beckman Instruments in Mountain View, California; his plan was to develop a new type of “4-layer diode” that would work faster and have more uses than then-current transistors. At first he attempted to hire some of his former colleagues from Bell Labs, but none were willing to move to the West Coast or work with Shockley again at that time. Shockley then founded the core of the new company with what he considered the best and brightest graduates coming out of American engineering schools.

While Shockley was effective as a recruiter, he was less effective as a manager. A core group of Shockley employees, later known as thetraitorous eight, became unhappy with his management of the company. The eight men were Julius Blank, Victor Grinich, Jean Hoerni, Eugene Kleiner, Jay Last, Gordon Moore, Robert Noyce, and Sheldon Roberts. Looking for funding on their own project, they turned to Sherman Fairchild‘s Fairchild Camera and Instrument, an Eastern U.S. company with considerable military contracts.[4] In 1957 the Fairchild Semiconductor division was started with plans to make silicon transistors at a time when germanium was still the most common material for semiconductor use.

Wikipedia | Fairchild Semiconductor

Historic Transistor Photo Gallery: 2N697

dmThe unique history of Fairchild Semiconductor and its pioneering devices has been documented in a variety of sources.  The initial product line of this company, developed shortly after the founders departed as a group from Shockley Transistor Corporation in 1957, was a high performance silicon mesa transistor.  Initial shipments were made to IBM in 1958 for use as a memory core driver ($200 for each transistor).  By 1958, Fairchild began marketing the transistor commercially as the 2N697.   These were the best performing silicon transistors available at the time, and were very successful commercially.  Other semiconductors companies quickly joined in, and the 2N697 (and it’s related cousins, the 2N696, 2N1131 and 2N1132) soon became commonly available and were produced for many years by many companies.  Early prices were quite high and made substantial profit for those companies capable of silicon transistor manufacturing.  Texas Instruments, for example, offered the 2N697 for $28.50 each in the 1960 Lafayette radio catalog.  (Note: the earliest Fairchild devices are easily identified by the stylized “F” stamped in the top of the metal case, as in the example shown in the photo above).

Transistor Museum | FAIRCHILD 2N697

Jack Kilby

Jack St. Clair Kilby (November 8, 1923 – June 20, 2005) was an American electrical engineer who took part (along with Robert Noyce) in the realization of the first integrated circuit while working at Texas Instruments (TI) in 1958. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics on December 10, 2000.[1] To congratulate him, US President Bill Clinton wrote, “You can take pride in the knowledge that your work will help to improve lives for generations to come.”[2]

He is also the inventor of the handheld calculator and the thermal printer, for which he has patents. He also has patents for seven other inventions.[3]

In mid-1958, Kilby, as a newly employed engineer at Texas Instruments (TI), did not yet have the right to a summer vacation. He spent the summer working on the problem in circuit design that was commonly called the “tyranny of numbers” and finally came to the conclusion that manufacturing the circuit components en masse in a single piece of semiconductor material could provide a solution. On September 12 he presented his findings to management, which included Mark Shepherd. He showed them a piece of germanium with an oscilloscope attached, pressed a switch, and the oscilloscope showed a continuous sine wave, proving that his integrated circuit worked and thus that he had solved the problem. U.S. Patent 3,138,743 for “Miniaturized Electronic Circuits”, the first integrated circuit, was filed on February 6, 1959.[4] Along with Robert Noyce (who independently made a similar circuit a few months later), Kilby is generally credited as co-inventor of the integrated circuit.

Jack Kilby’s original integrated circuit

Wikipedia | Jack Kilby

Miniaturized electronic circuits: US 3138743 A

Many methods and techniques for miniaturizing electronic circuits have been proposed in the past. At first, most of the effort was spent upon reducing the size of the components and packing them more closely together. Work directed toward reducing component size is still going on but has nearly reached a limit. Other efforts have been made to reduce the size of electronic circuits such as by eliminating the protective coverings from components, by using more or less conventional techniques to form components on a single substrate, and by providing the components with a uniform size and shape to permit closer spacings in the circuit packaging therefor.

All of these methods and techniques require a very large number and variety of operations in fabricating a complete circuit. For example, of all circuit components, resistors are usually considered the most simple to form, but when adapted for miniaturization by conventional techniques, fabrication requires at least the following steps:

(a) Formation of the substrate.

(b) Preparation of the substrate.

(0) Application of terminations.

(d) Preparation of resistor material.

(e) Application of the resistor material.

(1) Heat treatment of the resistor material. (g) Protection or stabilization of the resistor.

Capacitors, transistors, and diodes when adapted for miniaturization each require at least as many steps in the fabrication thereof. Unfortunately, many of the steps required are not compatible. A treatment that is desirable for the protection of a resistor may damage another element, such as a capacitor or transistor, and as the size of the complete circuit is reduced, such conflicting treatments, or interactions, become of increasing importance. Interactions may be minimized by forming the components separately and then assembling them into a complete package, but the very act of assembly may cause damage to the more sensitive components.

US Patents | Miniaturized electronic circuits: US 3138743 A

How Transistors Work


Without transistors, engineers might never have created amazingly small and power digital products. Ethan Miller/Getty Images

Once mass-produced transistorized hearing aids and radios became realities, engineers realized that transistors would replace vacuum tubes in computers, too. One of the first pre-transistor computers, the famous ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) weighed 30 tons, thanks in part to its more than 17,000 vacuum tubes. It was obvious that transistors would completely change computer engineering and result in smaller machines.

Germanium transistors certainly helped start the computer age, but silicon transistors revolutionized computer design and spawned an entire industry in California’s aptly-named Silicon Valley.

In 1954, George Teal, a scientist at Texas Instruments, created the first silicon transistor. Soon after, manufacturers developed methods for mass-producing silicon transistors, which were cheaper and more reliable than germanium-based transistors.

Silicon transistors worked wonderfully for computer production. With smart engineering, transistors helped computers power through huge numbers of calculations in a short time. The simple switch operation of transistors is what enables your computer to complete massively complex tasks. In a computer chip, transistors switch between two binary states — 0 and 1. This is the language of computers. One computer chip can have millions of transistors continually switching, helping complete complex calculations.

In a computer chip, the transistors aren’t isolated, individual components. They’re part of what’s called an integrated circuit (also known as a microchip), in which many transistors work in concert to help the computer complete calculations. An integrated circuit is one piece of semiconductor material loaded with transistors and other electronic components.

Computers use those currents in tandem with Boolean algebra to make simple decisions. With many transistors, a computer can make many simple decisions very quickly, and thus perform complex calculations very quickly, too.

Computers need millions or even billions of transistors to complete tasks. Thanks to the reliability and incredibly small size of individual transistors, which are much smaller than the diameter of a single human hair, engineers can pack an unfathomable number of transistors into a wide array of computer and computer-related products.

Howstuffworks | How Transistor Work

IBM DNA Transistor

YouTube | IBM Research

Texas Instruments

TI’s new signboard at its Dallas headquarters

Texas Instruments was founded in 1951.[9] It emerged after a reorganization of Geophysical Service. This company manufactured equipment for use in the seismic industry as well as defense electronics. TI began research in transistors in the early 1950s and produced the world’s first commercial silicon transistor. In 1954, Texas Instruments designed and manufactured the first transistor radio and Jack Kilby invented the integrated circuit in 1958 while working at TI’s Central Research Labs. The company produced the first integrated circuit-based computer for the U.S. Air Force in 1961. TI researched infrared technology in the late 1950s and later made radar systems as well as guidance and control systems for both missiles and bombs. The hand-held calculator was introduced to the world by TI in 1967.

In the 1970s and 80s the company focused on consumer electronics including digital clocks, watches, hand-held calculators, home computers as well as various sensors. In 1997, its defense business was sold to Raytheon. In 2007, Texas Instruments was awarded the Manufacturer of the Year for Global Supply Chain Excellence by World Trade magazine. Texas Instruments is considered to be one of the most ethical companies in the world.[10]

After the acquisition of National Semiconductor in 2011, the company has a combined portfolio of nearly 45,000 analog products and customer design tools,[11] making it the world’s largest maker of analog technology components. In 2011, Texas Instruments ranked 175 in the Fortune 500. TI is made up of two main divisions: Semiconductors (SC) and Educational Technology (ET) of which Semiconductor products account for approximately 96% of TI’s revenue.

Wikipedia | Texas Instruments

Evolution of the Electronic Calculator

Graphing calculators have many advanced functions, including solving and graphing equations. ©

Several electronics companies and inventors may claim a first when it comes to the development of the electronic calculator. Japanese company Sharp is said to have created the first desktop calculator, the CS-10A, in 1964. This model resembled a cash register and cost about as much as mid-sized car

The next few years became something of a race between manufacturers to make calculators smaller, more accessible and less expensive. In 1972, British inventor Sir Clive Sinclair introduced the Sinclair Executive, which is considered by many to be the world’s first affordable pocket calculator. Its thickness was that of a pack of cigarettes.

These continued advancements in calculator technology were largely made possible by the development of the single-chip microprocessor in the late 1960s. Before this time, engineers built the computing “brains” of calculators (and computers) with multiple chips or other components. Basically, a single-chip microprocessor allows an entire central processing unit (CPU) to exist on one silicon microchip. (To learn more about this technology, check out How Microprocessors Work.)

Howstuffworks | Evolution of the Electronic Calculator

Texas Instruments: from calculators to cars

by Lauren Silverman | Tuesday, May 5, 2015 – 16:00

 In the 1980s, Texas Instruments was excited about its microchips in a hot toy called the Speak & Spell.

TI’s Speak & Spell used the first single-chip voice synthesizer, a tiny device that just a few years later gave the beloved alien E.T. a voice.

E.T. took advantage of the microchip, and later so did some Chrysler vehicles.

Despite its reputation for calculators, Texas Instruments isn’t new to the car business. TI’s automotive business is growing faster than the rest of the company, thanks to selling microprocessors and car technology.


“Most of the major car brands have TI tech inside of them that you don’t even know about,” says Automotive Processors general manager Curt Moore.

Microprocessors created by TI are in lots of cars, including Fords and BMWs, where they help control everything from car windows to power steering.


MARKETPLACE BUSINESS | Texas Instruments: from calculators to cars

How Moore’s Law Works


Gordon Moore at Intel’s headquarters AP Photo/Paul Sakuma

There’s a joke about personal computers that has been around almost as long as the devices have been on the market: You buy a new computer, take it home and just as you finish unpacking it you see an advertisement for a new computer that makes yours obsolete. If you’re the kind of person who demands to have the fastest, most powerful machines, it seems like you’re destined for frustration and a lot of trips to the computer store.

While the joke is obviously an exaggeration, it’s not that far off the mark. Even one of today’s modest personal computers has more processing power and storage space than the famous Cray-1 supercomputer. In 1976, the Cray-1 was state-of-the-art: it could process 160 million floating-point operations per second (flops) and had 8 megabytes (MB) of memory.

Today, many personal computers can perform more than 10 times that number of floating-point operations in a second and have 100 times the amount of memory. Meanwhile on the supercomputer front, the Cray XT5 Jaguar at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory performed a sustained 1.4 petaflops in 2008

The prefix peta means 10 to the 15th power — in other words, one quadrillion. That means the Cray XT5 can process 8.75 million times more flops than the Cray-1. It only took a little over three decades to reach that milestone.

Moore’s law

If you were to chart the evolution of the computer in terms of processing power, you would see that progress has been exponential. The man who first made this famous observation is Gordon Moore, a co-founder of the microprocessor company Intel. Computer scientists, electrical engineers, manufacturers and journalists extrapolated Moore’s Law from his original observation. In general, most people interpret Moore’s Law to mean the number of transistors on a 1-inch (2.5 centimeter) diameter of silicon doubles every x number of months.

Howstuffworks | How Moore’s Law Works

Intel History

In 1968, Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore were two unhappy engineers working for the Fairchild Semiconductor Company who decided to quit and create their own company at a time when many Fairchild employees were leaving to create start-ups. People like Noyce and Moore were nicknamed the “Fairchildren”.

Jasper James/ Stone/ Getty Images

Robert Noyce typed himself a one page idea of what he wanted to do with his new company, and that was enough to convince San Francisco venture capitalist Art Rock to back Noyce’s and Moore’s new venture.

Rock raised $2.5 million dollars in less than 2 days by selling convertible debentures. Art Rock became the first chairmen of Intel.

Intel Trademark

The name “Moore Noyce” was already trademarked by a hotel chain, so the two founders decided upon the name “Intel” for their new company, a shortened version of “Integrated Electronics”. However, the rights to the name had to bought from a company called Intelco first.

ABOUT | Intel History

Intel 8080

The Intel 8080 (“eighty-eighty”) was the second 8-bit microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel and was released in April 1974.[1] It was an extended and enhanced variant of the earlier 8008 design, although without binary compatibility. The initial specified clock frequency limit was 2 MHz, and with common instructions having execution times of 4, 5, 7, 10, or 11 cycles. This meant that it operated at an effective speed of a few hundred thousand instructions per second.

The 8080 has sometimes been labeled “the first truly usable microprocessor”, although earlier microprocessors were used for calculators, cash registers, computer terminals, industrial robots[2] and other applications. The architecture of the 8080 strongly influenced Intel’s 8086 CPU architecture, which spawned the x86 family of processors.

Federico Faggin, the originator of the 8080 architecture in early 1972, proposed it to Intel’s management and pushed for its implementation. He finally got the permission to develop it six months later. Faggin hired Masatoshi Shima from Japan who did the detailed design under his direction, using the design methodology for random logic with silicon gate that Faggin had created for the 4000 family. Stanley Mazor contributed a couple of instructions to the instruction set.

CPU Intel i8080

The 8080 required two support chips to function, the i8224 clock generator/driver and (most often) the i8228 bus controller and it was implemented using non-saturated enhancement-load NMOS, demanding an extra +12 V and a −5 V supply in addition to the main TTL compatible +5 V Supply.

The Intel 8080 was the successor to the 8008. It used the same basic instruction set and register model as the 8008 (developed by Computer Terminal Corporation), even though it was not source code compatible nor binary compatible with its predecessor. Every instruction in the 8008 has an equivalent instruction in the 8080 (even though the actual opcodes differ between the two CPUs). The 8080 also added a few 16-bit operations to its instruction set as well. Whereas the 8008 required the use of the HL register pair to indirectly access its 14-bit memory space, the 8080 added addressing modes to allow direct access to its full 16-bit memory space. In addition, the internal 7-level push-down call stack of the 8008 was replaced by a dedicated 16-bit stack pointer (SP) register. The 8080’s large 40-pin DIP packaging permitted it to provide a 16-bit address bus and an 8-bit data bus, allowing easy access to 64 KB of memory.

Wikipedia | Intel 8080

Intel 8080

The Intel 8080 (“eighty-eighty”) was the second 8-bit microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel and was released in April 1974. It was an extended and enhanced variant of the earlier 8008 design, although without binary compatibility. The initial specified clock frequency limit was 2 MHz, and with common instructions having execution times of 4, 5, 7, 10, or 11 cycles this meant that it operated at an effective speed of a few hundred thousand instructions per second.
The 8080 has sometimes been labeled “the first truly usable microprocessor”, although earlier microprocessors were used for calculators, cash registers, computer terminals, industrial robots and other applications. The architecture of the 8080 strongly influenced Intel’s 8086 CPU architecture, which spawned the x86 family of processors.

YouTube | Audiopedia


Motorola, Inc. /mtɵˈrlə/ was a multinational[5] telecommunications company based in Schaumburg, Illinois, United States (U.S.). After having lost $4.3 billion from 2007 to 2009, the company was divided into two independent public companies, Motorola Mobility and Motorola Solutions on January 4, 2011.[6] Motorola Solutions is generally considered to be the direct successor to Motorola, Inc., as the reorganization was structured with Motorola Mobility being spun off.[7]

Motorola designed and sold wireless network equipment such as cellular transmission base stations and signal amplifiers. Motorola’s home and broadcast network products included set-top boxes, digital video recorders, and network equipment used to enable video broadcasting, computer telephony, and high-definition television. Its business and government customers consisted mainly of wireless voice and broadband systems (used to build private networks), and, public safety communications systems like Astro and Dimetra. These businesses (except for set-top boxesand cable modems) are now part of Motorola Solutions. Google sold Motorola Home (the former General Instrument cable businesses) to theArris Group in 2012.[8]

The company began making televisions in 1947 with the model VT-71 with 7-inch cathode ray tube. In 1960, it introduced the world’s first large-screen portable (19-inch), transistorized, cordless television. In 1963, it introduced the first rectangular color picture tube and in 1967 introduced the modular Quasar brand. In 1974, Motorola sold its television business to the Japan-based Matsushita – the parent company of Panasonic.

In 1952, Motorola opened its first international subsidiary in Toronto, Canada to produce radios and televisions. In 1953, the company established the Motorola Foundation to support leading universities in the United States. In 1964, it opened its first company Research and Development branch outside of the United States, in Israel under the management of Moses Basin.

In 1969 Neil Armstrong spoke the famous words “one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind” from the Moon on a Motorola transceiver.[21]

In 1973, Motorola demonstrated the first hand-held portable telephone.[22]

In 1974, Motorola introduced its first microprocessor, the 8-bit MC6800, used in automotive, computing and video game applications.[23]

In 1976, Motorola moved its headquarters to the Chicago suburb of Schaumburg, Illinois.

In 1980, Motorola’s next generation 32-bit microprocessor, the MC68000, led the wave of technologies that spurred the computing revolution in 1984, powering devices from companies such as Apple, Commodore, Atari, Sun, and Hewlett Packard.[24]

Dr. Martin Cooper of Motorola made the first private handheld mobile phone call on a larger prototype model in 1973. This is a reenactment in 2007.

 In September 1983, the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) approved the DynaTAC 8000X telephone, the world’s first commercial cellular device. By 1998, cellphones accounted for two thirds of Motorola’s gross revenue.[25] The company was also strong in semiconductor technology, includingintegrated circuits used in computers. In particular, it is known for the 6800 family and 68000 family of microprocessors used in Atari ST, Commodore Amiga,Color Computer, and Apple Macintosh personal computers. The PowerPC family was developed with IBM and in a partnership with Apple (known as the AIM alliance). Motorola also has a diverse line of communication products, including satellite systems, digital cable boxes and modems.

In 1986, Motorola invented the Six Sigma quality improvement process. This became a global standard. In 1990, General Instrument Corporation, which was later acquired by Motorola, proposed the first all-digital HDTV standard. In the same year, the company introduced the Bravo numeric pager which became the world’s best-selling pager.

In 1991, Motorola demonstrated the world’s first working-prototype digital cellular system and phones using GSM standard in Hanover, Germany. In 1994, Motorola introduced the world’s first commercial digital radio system that combined paging, data and cellular communications and voice dispatch in a single radio network and handset. In 1995 Motorola introduced the world’s first two-way pager which allowed users to receive text messages and e-mail and reply with a standard response.

In 1998, Motorola was overtaken by Nokia as the world’s biggest seller of mobile phone handsets.[21]

Wikipedia | Motorola

Motorola 68000

The Motorola 68000 (“‘sixty-eight-thousand'”; also called the m68k or Motorola 68k, “sixty-eight-kay“) is a 16/32-bit[1] CISC microprocessorcore designed and marketed by Motorola Semiconductor Products Sector (now Freescale Semiconductor). Introduced in 1979 with HMOStechnology as the first member of the successful 32-bit m68k family of microprocessors, it is generally software forward compatible with the rest of the line despite being limited to a 16-bit wide external bus.[2] After 35 years in production, the 68000 architecture is still in use.

Pre-release XC68000 chip manufactured in 1979.

The 68000 grew out of the MACSS (Motorola Advanced Computer System on Silicon) project, begun in 1976 to develop an entirely new architecture without backward compatibility. It would be a higher-power sibling complementing the existing 8-bit 6800 line rather than a compatible successor. In the end, the 68000 did retain a bus protocol compatibility mode for existing 6800 peripheral devices, and a version with an 8-bit data bus was produced. However, the designers mainly focused on the future, or forward compatibility, which gave the 68000 platform a head start against later 32-bitinstruction set architectures. For instance, the CPU registers are 32 bits wide, though few self-contained structures in the processor itself operate on 32 bits at a time. The MACSS team drew heavily on the influence of minicomputer processor design, such as the PDP-11 and VAX systems, which were similarly microcoded.

In the mid 1970s, the 8-bit microprocessor manufacturers raced to introduce the 16-bit generation. National Semiconductor had been first with its IMP-16 and PACE processors in 1973–1975, but these had issues with speed. Intel had worked on their advanced 16/32-bit iAPX432 (alias 8800) since 1975 and their Intel 8086 since 1976 (it was introduced in 1978 but became really widespread in the form of the almost identical 8088 in the IBM PC a few years later). Arriving late to the 16-bit arena afforded the new processor more transistors (roughly 40 000 active versus 20 000 active in the 8086), 32-bit macroinstructions, and acclaimed general ease of use.

The original MC68000 was fabricated using an HMOS process with a 3.5 µm feature size. Formally introduced in September 1979,[3] Initial samples were released in February 1980, with production chips available over the counter in November.[4] Initial speed grades were 4, 6, and 8 MHz. 10 MHz chips became available during 1981[citation needed], and 12.5 MHz chips by June 1982.[4] The 16.67 MHz “12F” version of the MC68000, the fastest version of the original HMOS chip, was not produced until the late 1980s. Tom Gunter, retired Corporate Vice President at Motorola, is known as the “Father of the 68000”.

Two Hitachi 68HC000 CPUs being used on an arcade game PCB

The 68k instruction set was particularly well suited to implement Unix,[5] and the 68000 became the dominant CPU for Unix-based workstations including Sun workstations and Apollo/Domain workstations, and also was used for mass-market computers such as the Apple Lisa, Macintosh, Amiga, and Atari ST. The 68000 was used in Microsoft Xenix systems as well as an early NetWare Unix-based Server. The 68000 was used in the first generation of desktop laser printers including the original Apple Inc. LaserWriter and the HP LaserJet. In 1982, the 68000 received an update to its ISAallowing it to support virtual memory and to conform to the Popek and Goldberg virtualization requirements. The updated chip was called the 68010. A further extended version which exposed 31 bits of the address bus was also produced, in small quantities, as the 68012.

Wikipedia | Motorola 68000

Sherman Fairchild

0Wikipedia-logo-en-bigSherman Mills Fairchild (April 7, 1896 – March 28, 1971) was an American businessman, investor and inventor. He founded over 70 companies, including Fairchild Aircraft, Fairchild Industries, Fairchild Aviation Corporation, and Fairchild Camera and Instrument. Fairchild made significant contributions to the aviation industry and was inducted into the National Aviation Hall of Fame in 1979. His Fairchild Semiconductor company played a defining role in the development of Silicon Valley. He held over 30 patents[1] for products ranging from the silicon semiconductor to the 8-mm. home sound motion-picture camera.[2] Fairchild is also responsible for inventing the first synchronized camera shutter and flash as well as developing new technologies for aerial cameras that were later used on the Apollo Missions. In 1917, after being rejected from the military because of his poor health Fairchild was determined to find another way to support the World War I effort.[3] Fairchild and his father went to Washington and won a government contract to develop an improved aerial camera. The camera featured a shutter that was inside the lens, thereby reducing the significant image distortion caused by the slow shutter speeds that could not keep up with the movement of the plane.[6] The U.S. government gave Fairchild a budget of $7,000; the project, however, ended up costing $40,000; his father paid the difference.[5] Although the military did not accept his camera until the war effort was over, the U.S. government did purchase two cameras for training.[6]Undeterred, Fairchild went on to focus his attention on developing a more advanced camera, and in February 1920 he established the Fairchild Aerial Camera Corporation (predecessor of Fairchild Camera and Instrument).[5] Shortly thereafter the U.S. Army ordered 20 additional Fairchild cameras and selected it as the standard for aerial cameras.[6] The need for Fairchild’s aerial cameras continued to grow; during World War II over 90% of all aerial cameras used by Allied Forces were of Fairchild design or manufacture.[1]

New York City 1930 Fairchild Aerial Surveys Inc.

Fairchild wanted to expand the capabilities of his cameras for map making and aerial surveying. In 1921, he formed Fairchild Aerial Surveys and bought a surplus World War I Fokker D.VII biplane to take his aerial photographs.[3] Shortly afterward, Fairchild landed a contract to make a photomap of Newark, New Jersey, which would be the first aerial mapping of a major city.[3] In 1923, Fairchild formed Fairchild Aerial Surveys of Canada, Limited after he was asked by the chief forester of the Laurentide Paper Company to perform aerial surveys of Canada.[3] Back in the United States he made an aerial map of Manhattan Island which went on to become a commercial success and was implemented by several New York businesses. Other cities began using aerial mapping, as they found it was faster and less expensive than the ground surveys of the time. Aerial photography proved to be a successful commercial venture.[7] 

Fairchild F-1 Aerial Camera

To accommodate this growing commercial demand for aerial surveys; Fairchild established Fairchild Aerial Surveys in the United States.[6] In 1965 Fairchild sold Fairchild Aerial Surveys to Aero Services, Inc., which decided to keep only the more recent photographs and dispose of the others. A former Fairchild employee learned of this plan and was able to get the older material to three Southern California Institutions; Whittier College, UCLA, and California State University at Northridge, where he knew professors who would put the material to good use.[5] Whittier College closed access to the photographs in 2010. In 2012, the collection was put up for sale.[8] The University of California Santa Barbara acquired the collection in December, 2012.[9]

Wikipedia | Sherman Fairchild

Fairchild Aerial Surveys

Fairchild imagery came to the Map & Imagery Lab (MIL) in at least two parts:

  • As part of a 1986 gift from Teledyne Geotronics and, some years later, from California State University at Northridge.
  • MIL purchased the portions of its Fairchild collection from Whittier College in late 2012.

A list of flights received from Whittier College with descriptions of the areas covered can be downloaded here.  We are currently in the process of adding these flights to our online catalog.

FAS flight ID numbers will have the prefix C or NY, determined by the office in which they originated. (The California office prefaced flights with the letter “C”, and the New York office prefaced their flights with the letters “NY.”)  Most of the photography from the California office covers areas in southern and central California between the 1920s and 1960s. The New York office produced early flights of the eastern seaboard states, and most of theMassachusetts flights in the catalog are Fairchild.

C22555 frame 16-16, Santa Monica, 1956.

Airs California | Fairchild Aerial Surveys

Fairchild Aerial Survey

There was once a fabulous company that documented Long Island, New York City and its environs, and beyond, from the air.  Started around 1920 by aviation pioneer Sherman M(ills). Fairchild, its vast collection has been dissipated and the purpose of this page is to stimulate interest in the photos and, hopefully, document where they ended up (not in the trash, one trusts!).

We know, for an instance, that at least some of the 1930 Fairchild Aerial Survey, Inc. (New York, New York) “Aerial Views of Washington” are on file at the Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.  In November of 1927, there was a crash of a small airplane at takeoff near Odessa, Texas; it was to have surveyed the terrain between there and Crane and was a 12-cylinder DeHavilland owned by Fairchild Aerial Survey, Inc., of Dallas.  In 1931, FAS took pictures of the Forth Point Channel Bridges in or around Boston harbor (Library of Congress).  And so it goes.

Here’s a 1931 (maybe early 32) FAS aerial view of mid-Manhattan looking East-Northeast, from a post card about to go up on eBay (ID #71953), a fabulous example of a Fairchild Aerial Survey photo; I was asked to help date it (21 Feb 2003)

Postcard with “No. 133 Aerial View of Mid-New York Fairchild A. Survey”, undated.

S. Berliner, III | Fairchild Aerial Survey

10 Useful Google Tools: Google Maps

Google launched its online map feature in 2005, nearly 10 years after MapQuest‘s online debut. Like its competitor, Google Maps lets users view maps of specific regions and get directions from one location to another. Google Maps allows users to view street maps, topographical terrain maps or even satellite views. For some areas, Google also has a traffic map feature that can alert you to any snarls or bottlenecks.

The Google Maps satellite view gives you a birds-eye perspective of cities like Atlanta, Ga. ©2008 HowStuffWorks

The Google Maps feature relies on digital map images from NAVTEQ. NAVTEQ provides map data to many different clients, including in-vehicle navigation systems. A company called deCarta — formerly Telcontar — provides the applications that power the mapping features. Google employees create the applications that combine the images from NAVTEQ and the mapping capabilities provided by deCarta to create the features you see in Google Maps.

Howstuffworks | 10 Useful Google Tools: Google Maps


NAVTEQ’s underlying map database is based on first-hand observation of geographic features rather than relying on official government maps. It provides data used in a wide range of applications, including automotive navigation systems for many car makers, accounting for around 85% of market share.[citation needed] Most clients use Navteq to provide traffic reports in major metropolitan areas throughout North America.

A NAVTEQ car surveying on Powell Street, San Francisco

NAVTEQ partners with third-party agencies and companies to provide its services for portable GPS devices made by Garmin, Lowrance, NDriveand web-based applications such as Yahoo! Maps, Bing Maps, and Nokia Maps.[3] Microsoft‘s aviation game Flight Simulator X uses NAVTEQ data to achieve a high level of visual realism for automatic terrain generation.[4] XM Satellite Radio and Sirius Satellite Radio use NAVTEQ data to show traffic information on navigation systems. NAVTEQ data has also been used for GPS- and GSM-based sex offender tracking systems inNorth Carolina and Georgia. NAVTEQ also provides graphics systems, information services, and personnel for TV and radio broadcasting via NAVTEQ Media Services.

Its main competitors are Google and the Dutch company TeleAtlas now owned by TomTom.

Wikipedia | Navdeq

Navigation mapping focuses on more detail, greater accuracy

Location data provider Navteq has done much to enhance its service offer in recent months, across consumer, commercial and government markets worldwide, and the company reports more to come. Interior destination maps, the most recent addition to Navteq’s pedestrian navigation portfolio, are now being considered for complex transport interchanges to give guidance to transferring passengers, particularly those with mobility problems.

Navteq data collection technology in operation

Navteq data collection technology in operation

Navteq director for customer marketing enterprise Europe, Peter Beaumont, says: “It makes possible seamless extension of the navigation experience from the street to within large or complex destinations.”
Map attributes include pedestrian-specific needs such as the locations of stairs, lifts, emergency exits and escalators; recognition of floor levels; and access restrictions. Navteq’s research indicates that 74% of US consumers welcome such support when away from their own areas and 40% when on home ground.

In Europe, the company reports positive response to its 2011 offer of postcode boundary data geo-referenced to its mapping products. The offer is now available in 24 European countries in both Esri Shapefile and MapInfo TAB file formats. Navteq plans to expand it into the Middle East and Africa during 2012.

ITS International | Navigation mapping focuses on more detail, greater accuracy

Global Navigation Information

NAVTEQ True™ utilizes a unique combination of technologies to create a 3D model of the real world. We combine rotating LIDAR, positioning sensors, panoramic cameras, and high res multi view cameras to capture real world dimension, fueling more realistic and interactive location experiences for you.

YouTube | Global Navigation Information

How does Google Maps predict traffic?


The green, yellow and red routes that Google Maps uses to indicate clear, slow-moving, or heavily congested traffic are a great help when you’re trying to determine the fastest way to your destination, but how does Google know the traffic conditions between where you are and where you’re trying to go?

Smartphone users are helping one another when it comes to sending data to the Google Maps app. dolgachov/iStock/Thinkstock

Google Maps bases its traffic views and faster-route recommendations on two different kinds of information: historical data about the average time it takes to travel a particular section of road at specific times on specific days and real-time data sent by sensors and smartphones that report how fast cars are moving right then

.Early versions of Google Maps relied only on data from traffic sensors, most of which were installed by government transportation agencies or private companies that specialize in compiling traffic data. Using radar, active infrared or laser radar technology, the sensors are able to detect the size and speed of passing vehicles and then wirelessly transmit that information to a server [sources: Machay, Palmer].

Howstuffworks | How does Google Maps predict traffic?

Uncover the technology behind Garmin’s HD Digital Traffic — NAVTEQ Traffic

NAVTEQ® Traffic is high-quality, real-time traffic that delivers up-to-the minute and traffic flow and incident information to Garmin PNDs via the high bandwidth of hybrid digital (HD) Radio. Using one of the fastest traffic delivery systems in the marketplace today, Garmin’s HD Digital Traffic empowers drivers to make smart routing and re-routing decisions with the most accurate arrival time estimates using NAVTEQ® Traffic.

Garmin’s HD Digital Traffic is a perfect complement to NAVTEQ® Maps, supercharging the world’s most reliable maps with the most respected name in portable GPS.

NAVTEQ | Uncover the technology behind Garmin’s HD Digital Traffic — NAVTEQ Traffic

Kapsch Group

The Kapsch Group, headquartered in Vienna, Austria, is an international Road Telematics, Information Technology and Telecommunications Company. The corporate group, with more than 5,000 employees worldwide generated total revenue of € 923,3 million ($1,235 million) as of March 2014 and has invested € 95,5 million ($127.79 million) in research and development.[1]
In September 1892, Johann Kapsch (1845–1921) founded a precision engineering workshop in Vienna, with the state-owned and operated Post- und Telegraphenverwaltung (Mailing- and Telegraph-Administration) among its first clients. In 1916, the company changed its name to Telefon- und Telegrafen-Fabriks-Aktiengesellschaft Kapsch & Söhne in Wien (“Telephone and Telegraph Manufacturing Stock Company Kapsch & Sons in Vienna”). During World War I, the company produced night sights for the Austrian Model 1895 rifle and carbine.[2] With the growing number of inventions, Kapsch expanded its product range by adding the manufacturing of capacitors, tin tubes and dry batteries. In 1923, Kapsch started to manufacture radios, with the first TV sets following in 1955. After the Second World War, Kapsch was heavily involved in rebuilding the Austrian telephone network.[3][4]

Kapsch Group | Kapsch Group


(CNN Español) – Xavier Serbiá y el equipo de Fuerza en Movimiento viajaron a Chile para continuar descubriendo el mundo de los negocios en América Latina. En esta ocasión, analizaron de cerca tres interesantes y exitosos casos del área de investigación y desarrollo: Prodalysa, ActivaQ e Innovaxxion.Innovación y valor agregado

CNN Español | La fuerza de la innovación en el siglo XXI


Ha puesto “el conocimiento universal en una línea similar a la que logró el espíritu enciclopedista del siglo XVIII”, afirmó el jurado.


Wikipedia, la enciclopedia digital de acceso librecreada en el año 2001 por el estadounidenseJimmy Wales, ganó hoy el Premio Princesa de Asturias de Cooperación Internacional 2015.

El jurado encargado de conceder el premio resaltó en el acta que el crecimiento de Wikipedia, que figura entre los diez sitios más visitados de internet, ha sido continuo con más de 37 millones de artículos en 288 idiomas, incluidas algunas lenguas indígenas.

El jurado valoró el importante ejemplo de cooperación internacional, democrático, abierto y participativo, en el que colaboran desinteresadamente miles de personas de todas las nacionalidades.

Aristegui Noticias | Wikipedia gana Premio Princesa de Asturias de Cooperación Internacional